Lignocellulosic materials as an alternative source of solid biofuels

Complimentary publication order

Wojciech Cichy
Instytut Technologii Drewna, 2013
ISBN  978-83-932284-3-0

(Polish language version)

A free publication prepared under a research project by Ministry of Science and Higher Education No. N N309 160438 titled “Lignocellulosic materials as an alternative source of solid biofuels”

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION 5
2. INTRODUCTION TO THE SUBJECT MATTER
    2.1. The issues associated with renewable energy sources (RES) and the question of biomass 9
    2.2. Standardisation-related issues 22 
3. AIM AND SCOPE OF THE WORK  27 
    3.1. Aim of the work 27 
    3.2. Scope of the work  27 
           3.2.1. Rationale for the adopted research methods 28 
4. METHODOLOGY OF THE WORK  31 
    4.1. Research materials 31 
          4.1.1. The characteristics of materials selected for laboratory and semi-technical tests  31 
          4.1.2. Selection of materials for semi-technical tests  36 
          4.1.3. Preparation of samples for laboratory analyses  38 
    4.2. Analyses of the fuel properties of lignocellulosic materials  38 
          4.2.1. Calculations of the calorific value of fuel mixtures  39 
    4.3. Tests of the lignocellulosic material combustion processes  39 
          4.3.1. Characteristics of the test stand  40 
          4.3.2. Measurements conducted during the tests of combustion processes  41 
          4.3.3. The course of the tests   42 
    4.4. Determination of the indicators of biofuel quality  44 
5. TEST RESULTS  47 
    5.1. Introduction  47 
    5.2. Assessment of the fuel properties of selected lignocellulosic materials  48 
          5.2.1. An attempt at a comprehensive assessment of solid biofuels  89 
    5.3. An assessment of the course of combustion of selected lignocellulosic materials 93 
          5.3.1. The energy effects of combustion processes  130 
          5.3.2. Nitrogen transformations during the combustion of lignocellulosic materials  134 
6. SUMMATION  139 
7. CONCLUSIONS  147 
8. BIBLIOGRAPHY 149 
9. SUMMARY 161 
10. APPENDICES 163 
      10.1. The list of European and international standards on solid biofuels  163 
              10.1.1. The list of European standards on solid biofuels  163 
              10.1.2. The list of international standardisation documents (ISO) on solid biofuels  166 
      10.2. The numerical classification of raw materials used in the production of solid biofuels  167