Protection of wood with quaternary ammonium salts of a new generation

Available in ITD’s reading room.

Jadwiga Zabielska-Matejuk
Poznań, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Przyrodniczego, 2008
ISSN 1896-1894

(Polish language version)

CONTENTS

List of abbreviations and definitions  5 
1. Introduction 7
2. Theoretical part 9
    2.1. Factors determining anti-microbe activity of quaternary ammonium salts
          - the influence on biological membranes  
    2.2. Application of quaternary ammonium salts to wood protection  13 
    2.3. Processes of adsorption on the surface of solid body - kinetic and equivalence
          models
16 
    2.4. Biodegradation of quaternary ammonium salts in the environment 20 
3. Aim and scope of the study 23
4. Test materials and methods 26
    4.1. Test materials 26 
    4.2. Wood, lignin, and cellulose used in the tests 26 
    4.3. Fungi used in the tests 31 
    4.4. Test methods 33 
          4.4.1. Identification and analysis of quaternary ammonium salts 33 
                   Spectroscopy of magnetic nuclear resonance  33 
                   Elementary analysis  33 
                   Thermal stability  33 
                   Chemical analysis  33 
                   Reagents and standards  35 
          4.4.2. Biological tests 35 
                   Culture medium method - determination of toxic values ED50, ED100, LD  36 
                   Activity of compounds against Basidiomycotina fungi (agar-block methods)  36 
                   Activity of compounds against blue stain and mould fungi (tests on wood)  37 
          4.4.3. Physical and chemical tests of adsorption and bonding with wood, lignin
                   and cellulose
38 
          4.4.4. Biodegradation of quaternary ammonium salts by mould fungi in soil
                   environment
41 
          4.4.5. Statistical analysis 42 
5. Test results and discussion 43
    5.1. Identification and thermal stability of tested compounds 43
    5.2. The influence of function groups of monomeric ammonium salts on anti-fungal
           activity
46
    5.3. The influence of function groups of dimeric ammonium salts on anti-fungal
           activity
52
    5.4. Tests of the spectrum of fungicidal action of dimeric ammonium salts  61 
    5.5. The influence of function groups of monomeric and dimeric ammonium salts
           on adsorption and bonding with lignocellulosic material 
66 
          5.5.1. Equilibria of adsorption on wood sawdust  66 
          5.5.2. The influence of function groups of monomeric and dimeric ammonium salts
                   on adsorption on lignin and microcrystalline cellulose  
77 
          5.5.3. The influence of function groups on the kinetics of adsorption process
                   of quaternary ammonium salts
79 
          5.5.4. Spectrum analysis FT-IR 83 
    5.6. Biodegradation of quaternary ammonium salts by mould fungi in soil environment 89 
    5.7. Observations using a scanning electron microscope 98 
6. Summary 110
7. Conclusions 115
8. Literature 117