WOOD. Research papers. Reports. Announcements - No. 169 2003

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ISSN 1644-3985
 

Contents
 


RESEARCH PAPERS
Mariusz JOZWIAK, Stanisław PROSZYK, Witold JABLONSKI: 
Melamine-urea-formaldehyde adhesive resins (MUF) modified with natural alkylresorcinols 
(Polish and English language versions)
18
Zbigniew MORZE, Dorota DZIURKA, Janina LECKA: 
Comparative studies of methods used for formaldehyde determination in dry-formed fiberboards
(Polish and English language versions)
38
Rainer MARUTZKY, Guido HORA: 
Ecological challenges for the wood-based panel industry — present situation and the future prospects
(English language version)
45
Guido HORA: 
New quality requirements for exterior wood coatings under ecological demands derived from recent European research and development projects
(English language version)
57
Arno FRUHWALD: 
Wood industry in Europe — main trends
(English language version)
73
Ewa RATAJCZAK: 
Challenges of the new economy for wood industry
(Polish language version)
91

REPORTS
Stanisław SPLAWA-NEYMAN, Witold PAZDROWSKI, Jaroslaw SZABAN:
Summer Jiood and the selected properties of timber from the Jiooded forest stands 
(Polish language version)
115

ANNOUNCEMENTS
Wladyslaw STRYKOWSKI: 
50 years of the Wood Technology Institute in Poznan
(Polish language version)
123
Maria ABRAMOWICZ-WNUK: 
Conference and the jubilee in the Wood Technology Institute
(Polish and English language versions)
134
Farewell to the late Professor Edmund Urbanik
(Polish language version)
136

 

Summaries

 

RESEARCH PAPERS

Mariusz JOZWIAK, Stanisław PROSZYK, Witold JABLONSKI: 
Melamine-urea-formaldehyde adhesive resins (MUF) modified with natural alkylresorcinols 
(Polish and English language versions)

This paper presents results of studies on modification of adhesive bonding mass made of undistilled melamine-urea-formaldehyde resins (MUF) using a mixture of alkylresorcinols referred to as Alkyres. It follows from the results that Alkyres as a MUF adhesive bonding modifier is equivalent to resorcinol, and that hydrolytic resistance of adhesive bonded joints increases with its increasing amount in the adhesive mass. Effectiveness of modification of MUF adhesive with Alkyres depends on molar ratio of formaldehyde to melamine and urea in resin.

Zbigniew MORZE, Dorota DZIURKA, Janina LECKA: 
Comparative studies of methods used for formaldehyde determination in dry-formed fiberboards
(Polish and English language versions)

Methods used to determine the content and emission of formaldehyde in MDF boards were evaluated in this study. Moreover, it was found that with a general regression equation it is possible to infer its content in LDF and MDF boards of varying thickness on the basis of emission measurements taken using the bottle method.

Rainer MARUTZKY, Guido HORA: 
Ecological challenges for the wood-based panel industry — present situation and the future prospects
(English language version)

Although wood is one of the most ecological materials with a lot of advantageous properties, the main challenges of the wood-based panel industry have been located within the field of ecology. During the last 20 years, the wood-based panel industry has succeeded in solving most problems. Nevertheless, ecological demands have remained a challenge and are still causing the industries concern. This paper gives an overview about the actual challenges but will also mention the achievements of the past. It concentrates on issues concerning the production and application of particle boards, MDF and OSB.

Guido HORA: 
New quality requirements for exterior wood coatings under ecological demands derived from recent European research and development projects
(English language version)

Integrated in the activities of the Technical Committee TC 139 "Paints and Varnishes" in 1989 a new Working Group (WG 2) "Coating systems for exterior wood" has been initiated within the scope of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). The main purpose of this working group has been defined to produce a European standard EN 927 divided into three objectives. The first objective is to publish a guide to classification and selection, which has already been published as part 1 of the standard. The second objective deals with test methods and is split into 4 sub-issues, being the descriptions of a natural exposure trial, a liquid water absorption determination, a water vapor transmission and protection and an artificial weathering test. Besides the later listed artificial weathering test all other method are in a final stage. The final objective of the standard is to table the performance specifications of coating systems according to their potential end-use category basing on the results of the different tests described under the former objective.
For technical support during the drafting and finalization procedures of the standard in parallel to the activities of WG2 three European research projects and three round robin trials have been launched involving roughly identical institutes and project managers. These activities complemented respectively still complement thematically the European standardization work. In the following section short descriptions of the technical contents and as far as available a summary of results of selected projects will be given to show the practical relevance to standardization activities of the research and/or testing undertaken in these projects.

Arno FRUHWALD: 
Wood industry in Europe — main trends
(English language version)

This paper deals with the development of wood consumption from year 1961 to 2000 and measures to be undertaken in order to achieve an increased wood utilisation and market strength in the forthcoming decades. The geographic area of research is in accordance with the FAO-Yearbook of forest products and covers whole Europe excluding the former USSR.
Wood is a quite useful raw and building material as well as an important fuel, and it shows environmentally sound characteristics. Wood is renewable and can be permanentny available by sustained forest management. Principally, by burning wood the same amount of Carbon (CO2) is released as withdrawn from the atmosphere through the process of photosynthesis, in short: wood utilisation is CO2 neutral.
There are tremendous numbers of products and product groups made entirely or at least mainly from wood. Collecting data about their exact volume is, therefore, almost impossible. On the contrary, it is easier to consider the main product groups according to the classification of FAO-Yearbook of forest products and to find out the wood volume of each group. FAO divides the wood based products into the following main groups:

  • Wood fuel (including charcoal),
  • Industrial roundwood,
  • Sawnwood,
  • Wood-based panels,
  • Wood pulp,
  • Paper and paperboard.

These groups are again subdivided into smaller groups showing more details on the production and consumption volume in all countries and continents.

Ewa RATAJCZAK: 
Challenges of the new economy for wood industry
(Polish language version)

The arrival of the "new" or knowledge-based economy has put numerous pressures on Poland and, in particular, on the Polish woodworking industry. A rise in importance of intangible production factors, particularly knowledge and skills, and the newly-acquired key role of information technology as a tool for knowledge development gave rise to a range of new economic trends. To meet its aspirations and, in particular, to ensure accession to the European Union, Poland will inevitably need to embrace the knowledge-based model of economy or else risk inability to compete in the global market and becoming a second-rate economy.
Generally, challenges faced by the woodworking industry are more demanding than those brought to bear on the Polish industry as a whole. The woodworking industry's weaknesses are due to its incomplete transition in the 1990s and its specific features. The industry is ill-prepared to compete in European and global markets. Its advantages lie in low costs and prices rather than quality and innovation. The disadvantage is that most of the innovations adopted thus far have been transferred from abroad and that the industry's capacity to make continuous improvements in production technologies and products and achieve revolutionary changes is largely restricted. Such restrictions are due to the industry's nature as it relies on processing a natural resource. Compared to industries seen as technologically advanced, the woodworking sector is quite mature and relatively resistant to improvement through innovation. Its limitations, however, will not necessarily block technological progress in the field of wood product manufacturing. Many improvements remain to be made to make technologies more energy- and material-efficient and environmentally-friendly and to streamline process design and administration. 
One factor that hampers innovation in the Polish woodworking industry is the system of financing scientific research in Poland which has compromised the capacities of Polish science. Another obstacle is the lack of long-term linkages between science and business. 
The principal challenges faced by the woodworking industry in the knowledge-based economy are to:

  • shift from short- to long-term strategic planning,
  • establish a system of ensuring rapid improvements in the qualifications of labor (especially managerial and technical personnel),
  • ensure continuous qualification building (knowledge and skills),
  • establish closer linkages between business and science (research and development),
  • develop an ITC infrastructure and introduce advanced ICT tools in business processes.

The key challenges faced by science with respect to the woodworking sector are to:

  • carry out proper empirical studies (diagnose and monitor new economic processes and assess the effects of their introduction - the responsibility for achieving this goal rests with management, economics and technology experts),
  • develop an effective system of financing research and development (the need to procure public funding, especially for basic research),
  • increase the number and scope and commercialize research projects (establish close links with manufacturers, customize projects, view research results as products that need to be sold),
  • improve the qualifications and knowledge of personnel with a view to setting up inter-disciplinary teams cooperating across various institutions, also internationally,
  • upgrade infrastructure required for operation in an ICT economy (IT-systems, networks, databases, the English language).

REPORTS

Stanisław SPLAWA-NEYMAN, Witold PAZDROWSKI, Jaroslaw SZABAN:
Summer Jiood and the selected properties of timber from the Jiooded forest stands 
(Polish language version)

Stained timber from flooded forest stands in vicinity of Odra river valley was studied. Logs from following tree's species: Scots pine - Pinus sylvestris L., spruce - Picea abies L., larch - Larix decidua Mill., Douglas fir- Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco, beech - Fagus sylvatica L. and alder - Alnus glutinosa (L) Gaertn were studied. It appeared that the density, compression, bending and moduli of elasticity were lower than that in control timber. It was found that stain in timber appear in died trees on the flooded areas.