WOOD. Research papers. Reports. Announcements - No. 172 2004

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ISSN 1644-3985
 

Contents
 


RESEARCH PAPERS
Zofia KRZOSKA-ADAMCZAK, Magdalena NOWACZYK:
Methodical testing of furniture surface resistance to scratches – Reproduction and repeatability of the test method – Part 2
(English language version)
5
Jadwiga ZABIELSKA-MATEJUK: 
Testing of biological activity of new quaternary ammonium salts by culture medium method and accelerated block method
(Polish language version)
21
Mariusz JÓŹWIAK, Stanisław PROSZYK, Witold JABŁOŃSKI:
Research on enhancing reactivity of glue phenol-formaldehyde resins used in water-resistant plywood production
(Polish language version)
37
Anna BARSZCZ: 
Influence of the chosen external factors on occurrence of rot in Norway spruce wood (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) in stands of Beskid Śląski and Żywiecki
(Polish language version)
51
Aleksandra SZOSTAK, Ewa RATAJCZAK, Gabriela BIDZIŃSKA, Anna GAŁECKA: 
Industrial wood waste market in Poland 
(Polish language version)
69
Maciej SYDOR: 
Bearing capacity of dowels of furniture off-centre joints loaded with non-axial strength
(Polish language version)
91
Rafał MOSTOWSKI, Bogdan BRANOWSKI: 
Structural analysis of MES furniture angle joint 
(Polish language version)
103 

REPORTS
František KAČIK, Danica KAČIKOVÁ, Tatiana BUBENÍKOVÁ, Veronika VEL'KOVÁ: 
Determination of methoxylic groups in lignocellulosic materials
(English language version)
113
Mikulas SIKLIENKA, Grzegorz WIELOCH: 
Influence of the chosen parameters on the loss efficiency of wood grinding process
(Polish language version)
121  

ANNOUNCEMENTS 
Maria ABRAMOWICZ-WNUK: 
Honorary doctorate of the August Cieszkowski Agricultural University of Poznan for Professor Ryszard Babicki
(Polish language version)
131
Stanisław DOLNY: 
Jubilee of the Wood Technology Faculty of the August Cieszkowski Agricultural University of Poznan
(Polish language version)
133
Władysław STRYKOWSKI: 
80 years of the State Forests
(Polish language version)
137
Magdalena NOWACZYK: 
Furniture industry days in Dresden
(Polish language version)
139
Marcin JAKUBOWSKI, Jarosław SZABAN: 
Conference summing up the project “Advantage Hardwood”
(Polish language version)
143

 

Summaries

 

RESEARCH PAPERS

Zofia KRZOSKA-ADAMCZAK, Magdalena NOWACZYK:
Methodical testing of furniture surface resistance to scratches – reproduction and repeatability of the test method – Part 2
(English language version)
 

The aim of the presented research was to prove the usefulness of elaborated scratching test method, its parameters, repeatability and reproducibility of the results. The results of round robin tests performed by 5 European institutes are described. The principles of the method are modified after the RRT results analysis.
Presented results are a part of European research development project FUNFACE realised within the 5th Framework Programme of the European Union, financially supported by the European Commission of EU and Polish Committee of Science.

Jadwiga ZABIELSKA-MATEJUK: 
Testing of biological activity of new quaternary ammonium salts by culture medium method and accelerated block method
(Polish language version)

In order to determine biological activity of the new water-soluble quaternary ammoniumsalts, two screening methods were chosen: culture medium method and accelerated block method. Dependencies of the radial fungus growth or inhibition by the studied compounds were presented graphically by logarithmic or linear regression equations. Statistical method of calculation of effective doses ED of the studied compounds allowed for the precise determination of toxic threshold and better differentiation of their influence on microorganisms.
Research results obtained by culture medium method were correlated with the results obtained by accelerated block method in which solid wood was used as the basis. The majority of studied quaternary ammonium salts are characterized by high fungostatic effect expressed in small effective doses of ED50. The highest fungicidal efficacy against tested microorganisms was displayed by the experimental bis-quaternary imidazoliumchloride, and the lowest by the commercial quaternary polymer Barquad PQ-2. Fungus causing the sapstain of softwood Sclerophoma pityophila was most sensitive to the studied quaternary ammonium salts. The obtained toxic threshold results in screening methods were used for the structure optimization of new compounds and for dependencies determination: structure - biological properties - surface properties of new cation surfactants.

Mariusz JÓŹWIAK, Stanisław PROSZYK, Witold JABŁOŃSKI:
Research on enhancing reactivity of glue phenol-formaldehyde resins used in water-resistant plywood production
(Polish language version)

This paper presents research results concerning reactivity intensification of glue mixtures prepared from PF adhesive resins. In investigations, ethyl acetate as well as waste left after leather levelling after chromic tanning were used. The basic kinetics parameters of gelation process such as: constant rate and reaction order were determinated.
Moreover, an experimental 3-layer beech plywood was examined. In order to show the influence of substance causing increased reactivity of PF resin, a lower pressing temperature (120°C) and a higher moisture content of veneers (9%) were applied.
The effects of both tested substances on acceleration of gelation process of PF resin was stated. In the presence of ethyl acetate or tanning wastes the constant rate increased and the reaction order changed.
Plywood produced with the use of PF resin with the ethyl acetate showed to be waterproof independently of the pressing time. A surprisingly high quality of gluing was obtained for plywood using tanning wastes in pressing time range from 9 to 20 min. Ethyl acetate can be used in compositions of glue mixtures from PF resins in production of waterproof plywood. The tanning wastes can be used as extender of adhesive phenol-formaldehyde resins.

Anna BARSZCZ: 
Influence of the chosen external factors on occurrence of rot in Norway spruce wood (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) in stands of Beskid Śląski and Żywiecki
(Polish language version)

The research was conducted in the Beskid Śląski and Żywiecki area within the so-called Żywiecczyzna Region. The goals were the following: showing the influence of the bedrock, altitude and forest management type on the percentage of trees with internal rot, and examining any connections between tree injury and external rot. The research was conducted on 70 sample plots, on 1050 selected Norway spruces by taking samples with increment borer at the root neck. The type and percentage of the decay in the trunk diameter at the boring spot was established. External rot and trunk injury were also registered.
The lowest percentage of trees with internal rot was found in the stands on the istebna bedrock, and the highest on the magura bed - with the high percentage of trees with soft internal rot (fig. 2). Spruces touched by internal rot were more often found in the lower forest zone, especially in the upper part rather than in the upper forest zone (fig. 4).
The highest percentage of trees with internal rot was found in the stands of natural origin, and the lowest in rebuilt stands. The degree of decay was much higher in spruces of older rebuilt stands, over 50 years old, than in younger rebuilt stands - less than 50y.o. (fig. 6, 7).
The percentage of hard decay found on the diameter of the examined spruces at the root neck was half of the amount of soft decay (table 1). The difference between the percentage of trees with the internal rot depending on the bedrock, altitude and forest management was established by the χtest (table 2). The differences were statistically essential for data comparison of magura and isteban beds, of godula and isteban beds, and of stands of natural origin with rebuilt stands. Statistical test of coexistence of external rot and injury has confirmed such relationship. 
On the basis of the research results, it is possible to indicate the areas of different frequency of decay occurrences and consequently, of different timber quality. At the areas where the timber is most vulnerable, when a better timber quality is of concern, forest cultivation and forest protection should be intensified. The analysis of the causes of injuries and external rot of timber gives reason to suggest a better forest game control and a proper choice of highland technologies for timber harvesting.

Aleksandra SZOSTAK, Ewa RATAJCZAK, Gabriela BIDZIŃSKA, Anna GAŁECKA: 
Industrial wood waste market in Poland 
(Polish language version)

The goal of the research was the analysis of the industrial wood residues in Poland. In the analysis, residues that appear in processing and conversion of wood into wood products and in the production of final products from solid wood and wood-based materials were taken into consideration. Forest leftovers and recovered waste wood which require separate systematised research were not included in the analysis. Subject research included the following branches of wood sector: sawmilling, agglomerated wood-based panels (chipboard, compressed and soft fibreboard, MDF, OSB), plywood and core plywood, building joinery, packaging, furniture, matches, and wood pulp. The diagnosis was made for the year 2003.
The basis for the diagnosis of the industrial wood residues market was a detailed analysis of the Polish wood sector in its production volume and technological aspects. For this purpose statistical and mathematical tools were employed together with descriptive statistics while identifying the mechanisms of market phenomena and processes within this sector. Non-mathematical methods were also employed (expert appraisement, method of sequential approximations, phenomena observation). These methods allowed for construction of partial models of supply and demand for wood residues and their estimation. Additionally, to verify the partial supply and demand models constructed with statistical - mathematical and non-mathematical methods, the method of survey research was used as well.
Conducted calculations showed that there were over 8.0 mln of m3 of industrial wood residues in Poland in 2003. The most residues came from the sawmilling branch (60%). Total supply was dominated by sawmill pieces (46%); the percentage of sawdust came to 32%, wood dust - 6%, and bark - 16%. 64% of the industrial wood residues was solid wood residues.
Industrial wood residues have been commonly used for both production and energy purposes for many years. The account balance of these residues indicates that during the analysed period some 7.2 mln of m3 were utilised by the wood sector. For the production purposes the biggest amounts were used in agglomerated wood-based panel industry (85%), and for energetic purposes by sawmilling branch (around 33%) and by furniture branch (around 26%). It is estimated that the industrial wood residues surplus of 0.9 mln m3 was used for production purposes by other manufacturing industries (manufacturing of lather, basic metal, food products), for farming in agricultural and horticultural industries and for energy purposes by institutional and individual consumers.

Maciej SYDOR: 
Bearing capacity of dowels of furniture off-centre joints loaded with non-axial strength
(Polish language version)

The paper presents the results of studies about holding strength of eccentric joints pins in particle and fibre boards. The path of static equilibrium (as a function of the static strength and dislocation) for different angles of deviation a force vector from geometrical axis of symmetry of pin in result of experiment was received. The experiment depended on draught paths of equilibrium. Investigation was executed on the universal test machine equipped in special attachment. On basis of received graphs was affirmed the maximum of carries capacity of pin in range 0,05-0,10 mrad (2,9-5,7°).

Rafał MOSTOWSKI, Bogdan BRANOWSKI: 
Structural analysis of MES furniture angle joint 
(Polish language version)

The paper presents a FEM contact analysis of a furniture angle joint with a circular cam. A finite element model of the joint was created. The stress pattern in the joint elements was analyzed. Some assumptions concerning the formulation of analytical computational models were verified. Directions of further theoretical and experimental studies were proposed, which may be of significant importance in the process of furniture design.

REPORTS

František KAČIK, Danica KAČIKOVÁ, Tatiana BUBENÍKOVÁ, Veronika VEL'KOVÁ: 
Determination of methoxylic groups in lignocellulosic materials
(English language version)

This paper deals with the determination of methoxyl groups in lignocellulosic materials. The methoxyl content in the lignocellulosic materials, especially in lignin, is useful in assessing sample purity and its characterisation.
The most widely used procedure is the method of Vieböck and Schwappach. The alternative method for methoxyl groups determination is based on the method of Mathers and Pro. The methanol produced during these reactions can be determined by several methods.
In the proposed modification of this method we used the following procedure. Dioxane lignin (20 mg) or wood (80 mg) was heated with concentrated sulphuric acid (98%, 5 mL) under reflux condenser for 10 minutes. The reaction mixture was cooled and water (35 mL) was added. The methanol produced in the reaction was distilled and quantified by gas chromatography. The following chromatographic conditions were used: stationary phase - Chromosorb 102, column dimensions - 120´0.3 cm I.D., detector - FID, injector temperature - 190°C, detector temperature - 190 °C, column temperature - 180°C.
The method was checked with syringaldehyde, vanillin, syringic acid and vanillic acid with the good reproducibility.

Mikulas SIKLIENKA, Grzegorz WIELOCH: 
Influence of the chosen parameters on the loss efficiency of wood grinding process
(Polish language version)

The paper presents the results of experimental research of measurement of influence of push quantity belt's grinder, sanding time and granularity on efficiency of the process. The measurement was taken at push quantity of 1, 1,5; 1,85 i 2 N/cm2; using sanding bands of KLINGSPOR (Germany) with granularity 40, 80 and 120. The influence of time on sanding efficiency was researched at push quantities of 1,0 i 1,85 N/cmduring period of 480 min. The measurement was taken in 20 min intervals while sanding wood with sanding belts of granularity no 80. While measuring sanding efficiency as a parameter was used relative value of wood removal in 1 min in [g/cm3 x 1/min].

ANNOUNCEMENTS 

Maria ABRAMOWICZ-WNUK: 
Honorary doctorate of the August Cieszkowski Agricultural University of Poznan for Professor Ryszard Babicki
(Polish language version)

On the 4th of June, 2004, at the Centre of Ecological and Forest Education sponsored by Nadleśnictwo Kliniska in the Szczecin area, an international conference took place. The conference summarised the "Advantage Hardwood" project popularising hardwood as ecological material. Several dozens of people participated in the conference. Among the invited guests were scientists, foresters, timber workers, representatives of the ocal authorities, teachers, and workers of forest services enterprises. Next stages of the project realisation as well as the issues concerning hardwood promotion were discussed by Polish and Swedish counterparts.

Stanisław DOLNY: 
Jubilee of the Wood Technology Faculty of the August Cieszkowski Agricultural University of Poznan
(Polish language version)

This year passes 50 years since the creation of the Wood Technology Department at the then Higher School of Agriculture.  Department's community and authorities decided to celebrate this fact by giving the anniversary a unique character.  The celebration was sponsored by the Honorous Committee, chairman of which was Professor Erwin Wąsowicz - the Rector of Academy of Agriculture of A. Cieszkowski in Poznań.

Władysław STRYKOWSKI: 
80 years of the State Forests
(Polish language version)

The State Forests enterprise was brought to life at 28 of June 1924 by the ordinance issued by the President of the Polish Republic.  Its role was to manage scattered state forest properties while facing a difficult challenge - to rebuild, unite and to create a uniform system of administration principles.

Magdalena NOWACZYK: 
Furniture industry days in Dresden
(Polish language version)

For the fifth time in Dresden, an international conference took place in May of this year.  The conference, in which participated representatives of both science and industry, was devoted to furniture and materials of interior design. Twenty six presentations were given within the following topic blocks:  trends and industrial design, production technology, material development, light materials, surface refining.

Marcin JAKUBOWSKI, Jarosław SZABAN: 
Conference summing up the project “Advantage Hardwood”
(Polish language version)

On the 4th of June, 2004, at the Centre of Ecological and Forest Education sponsored by Nadleśnictwo Kliniska in the Szczecin area, an international conference took place.  The conference summarised the "Advantage Hardwood" project popularising hardwood as ecological material.  Several dozens of people participated in the conference.  Among the invited guests were scientists, foresters, timber workers, representatives of the ocal authorities, teachers, and workers of forest services enterprises.  Next stages of the project realisation as well as the issues concerning hardwood promotion were discussed by Polish and Swedish counterparts.