WOOD. Research papers. Reports. Announcements - No. 177 2007

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ISSN 1644-3985

 

Contents


RESEARCH PAPERS  
 
Romann Glowacki, Wojciech Cichy: 
Energy use of wood in view of general legal regulations in Poland and Germany
(Polish language version)
5
Krzysztof Michalec: 
Quality of spruce raw material (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) from main centers and ranges of spruce distribution in Poland
(Polish language version)
57
Waldemar Moliński, Agnieszka Marcinkowska: 
Interrelationships between macrostructural parameters of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood and the pro-pagation velocity of ultrasound waves in the direction along fibres
(English language version) 
79 
Jerzy Karyś: 
Resonance method's potential for assessing progress of biological corrosion of wood and timber frame structures
(English language version)
91
Helmut Bauch, Rico Emmler, Detlef Krug, Ingrid Fuchs: 
Powder coating on wood based materials - chances, requirements on materials and application technologies, reachable surface qualities with UV-hardening and thermosetting powder coatings
(English language version) 
101 
Jarosław Banecki, Zofia Krzoska-Adamczak: 
Comparative studies of chosen test methods applied for evaluation of furniture surface resistance to scratching
(English language version) 
119 
Grzegorz Kowaluk, Piotr Beer, Bartosz Pałubicki, Iwona Frąckowiak: 
Different types of tool blunting during milling of particleboards from wooden chips and rape straw parts
(English language version) 
139 

REPORTS 
 
Aleksandra Dziewanowska-Pudliszak, Anna Tymek, Magdalena Czajka, Przemysław Gaca: 
Comparative tests of formaldehyde release from plywood by standardized European methods and the Japanese method
(Polish language version)
149

ANNOUNCEMENTS   
 
Ewa Ratajczak: 
Acceleration of innovation as a strategie objective of the forestry-wood sector
(Polish language version) 
161 
Grzegorz Kowaluk, Jakub Sandak: 
Large dimensioned timber problems in COST Action E40
(Polish language version)
165
Magdalena Nowaczyk-Organista, Zofia Krzoska-Adamczak: 
Resistance to cold liquids as main criterion of furniture surface classification - Interlabo-ratory tests results
(English language version) 
171 
 
SCIENTIST PROFILES
 
Andrzej Grzywacz: 
Jubilee of Professor Jerzy Ważny a full member of the Polish Academy of Sciences 
(Polish language version)
181

 

Summaries

 

RESEARCH PAPERS

Romann Glowacki, Wojciech Cichy: 
Energy use of wood in view of general legal regulations in Poland and Germany
(Polish language version)
 

The aim this study was to compare conditions and possibilities of energy use of wood in Germany and Poland. It was shown in the study that national support systems, in the form of subsidies in Germany and quota regulations in Poland, in combination with trade in biofuel origin certificates stimulate demand in the market in energy wood raw materials. The study also characterizes and compares general legal regulations concerning energy use of wood in both countries (Germany and Poland).
Three basic types of wood raw materials, i.e. forest wood, industrial wood waste and post-use wood, were described in detail and analyzed with a view of determining their quantity potential and possibilities of using them for energy production. Assessment of reserves of this raw material revealed that in Germany such reserves exist only in regard to forest wood and in Poland with regard to forest wood and post-use wood.
Analysis of structures of wood raw material use shows significant differences between the two countries, especially regarding post-use wood. In Germany post-use wood is used as fuel for energy generation and sold on the recycled wood market, while in Poland this type of wood is relatively seldom used at an industry scale, especially in the energy sector, but is more often used in households to substitute for coal used for heating. It should be also noticed that Polish legal solutions additionally hindered creation of post-use wood market. This resulted in a situation where it is often difficult to classify contaminated wood as biomass.
On the basis of the situation in the Polish industry of composite wood products there was carried out an analysis of competitiveness of two primary ways of wood use: for energy and material. A measurable result of the study is a proposal of optimization of legal solutions in the field of energy use of wood. The proposal is addressed mainly to the Polish administration. 

Krzysztof Michalec: 
Quality of spruce raw material (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) from main centers and ranges of spruce distribution in Poland
(Polish language version)

Due to the lack of comprehensive comparative research into the quality of spruce raw material from two ranges of spruce distribution in Poland an attempt to solve this issue was made. In connection with that the aim of the research was set to be a comparative analysis of the quality of spruce raw material from centers and ranges of spruce distribution in Poland, and indication of characteristic features and the most important differences.
Research covered two natural ranges of Norway spruce distribution in Poland - the south-western range and the north-eastern range. Research areas of 1ha were located in the area of Warmia and Mazury - 12 zones (12 forest divisions), in the area of the Sudetes - 8 zones (6 forest divisions) and in the Carpathians - 12 zones (7 forest divisions). 
The following measurements works were carried out in the research areas: mea-surement of the diameter breast high of each tree of the thickness of 7 cm and more; measurement of the height of trees of the diameter breast high of ³ 7cm; classification of raw material with the information on grade or quality-dimension group - of the first butt section of a trunk; registration of types and varieties of flaws; sampling from the bottom part of a trunk with the use of Pressler drill from 15 spruces selected by Draudt method from each research area. Stem of each tree growing in the research area was subjected to simulated classification into grades and quality-dimension groups, which can be theoretically manipulated from the full length of a given tree up to the top. These actions used Radwański tables, which allow determining dimensions and cubic content of particular parts of spruce stems on the basis of the diameter breast high and the height of trees. 
It was proven that spruce stands growing in the south-western range of distribution are characterized by higher abundance, thus wood of good quality grades has significant cubic content in comparison with stands from the north-eastern range (table 2). In the case of joint percentage share of raw material of good quality grades the situation is contrary, i.e. the share of wood of good quality grades prevails in the north-eastern range (fig. 1). The χtest used for testing the significance of differences in the quality-dimension structure of raw material from the researched centers and ranges of distribution indicates differences between all the compared groups of data (table 3). The analysis of frequency of flaw distribution showed that the north-eastern range was characterized by the smallest number of trees with flaws having bearing on the result of quality-dimension classification (fig. 2), and that the flaws which were the most significant in the whole tested raw material were knots and heart rot and then outer bark (fig. 3). 
Based on the analysis of rot distribution on samples drilled from trunks (fig. 4) it was observed that in comparison to mountain areas spruce from lowland stands was characterized by better state of health. Stands from the north-eastern range of distribution has a big share of healthy trees, but at the same time the largest share of trees suffering from soft rot was recorded in these stands. 
The north-eastern range, compared with other areas, had the lowest number of trees whose annual rings were up to 4 mm wide and simultaneously the highest number of trees with annual rings whose width ranged from 4 to 7 mm. Some trees in this range of distribution were characterized by an average width of increment of over 7 mm. 
This research did not explicitly confirm the opinion of higher quality of spruce raw material from south-western range of distribution (mountain area) in comparison to wood from north-eastern range of distribution. Mountain stands prevail as regards general abundance and average cubic content of wood high quality grades, however, they are inferior to lowland stands if we take into consideration the share of these grades in wood volume, frequency of distribution of trees with flaws and existence of f heart rot.

Waldemar Moliński, Agnieszka Marcinkowska: 
Interrelationships between macrostructural parameters of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood and the pro-pagation velocity of ultrasound waves in the direction along fibres
(English language version)
 

The paper analyses the interrelationships between wood macrostructural parameters, width of annual increments and the proportion of latewood in the annual increment of different tissues of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood and the propagation velocity of ultrasound waves in the direction along fibres. On the basis of the measured propagation velocity of ultrasound waves, the authors calculated the sonic modulus of wood and cell wall elasticity. Experiments were carried out on juvenile, mature and compression wood.

Jerzy Karyś: 
Resonance method's potential for assessing progress of biological corrosion of wood and timber frame structures
(English language version)

The results of wood and timber frame structure strength investigations using the resonance method are presented. Mathematical relations between tensile strength in bending and fundamental free vibration frequency as well as relations for the degree of wood degradation are derived.

Helmut Bauch, Rico Emmler, Detlef Krug, Ingrid Fuchs: 
Powder coating on wood based materials - chances, requirements on materials and application technologies, reachable surface qualities with UV-hardening and thermosetting powder coatings
(English language version)
 

In order to achieve the final breakthrough in the furniture area some development work is still waiting to be accomplished. We must therefore succeed in making smooth coating, from high gloss to satin matt. With LB powders, very fine, haptically hardly sensible structures, this may be obtained already, however, it remains to be a huge leap to come to high gloss lacquers on MDF. With the UV powder coatings it is already principally possible, however, not in a single-layer application but only after powder or liquid lacquer is primed with intermediate sanding. In this respect the application of thermo-smoothing that was developed at the Institut für Holztechnologie in Dresden offers a new solution.
New properties of powder coating, like weather resistance, open new possibilities for other substrates WPC and SMC alike, which have nearly the same properties as MDF substrate.
Freedom form solvents, high material efficiency by recycling and reusability of overspray, as well as savings in time and energy in a single-layer application should be sufficient reasons to focus on powder coating.

Jarosław Banecki, Zofia Krzoska-Adamczak: 
Comparative studies of chosen test methods applied for evaluation of furniture surface resistance to scratching
(English language version)
 

This paper is continuation of research on new surface scratching test method elaboration and successive stage of method validation. A new original test method was compared with two chosen ones that were commonly applied. The comparison was performed by evaluation of test results repeatability and ability to differentiate furniture surfaces. Moreover, the study of correlation between the new test method and standardized ones was carried out.

Grzegorz Kowaluk, Piotr Beer, Bartosz Pałubicki, Iwona Frąckowiak: 
Different types of tool blunting during milling of particleboards from wooden chips and rape straw parts
(English language version)
 

The aim of this work was to characterize the form of the tool wear during milling of two different materials: particleboards produced from wooden chips and particleboards produced from rape straw parts. Research shows that even when the average bluntness is similar the form of the bluntness is different. The wear of tools which machine particleboards from wooden chips was more irregular with clearly marked influence of the particleboards outside layers and catastrophic damage. The wear of a tool which machines particleboards produced from rape straw parts was more regular.

REPORTS

Aleksandra Dziewanowska-Pudliszak, Anna Tymek, Magdalena Czajka, Przemysław Gaca: 
Comparative tests of formaldehyde release from plywood by standardized European methods and the Japanese method
(Polish language version)

The Japanese desiccator's method was introduced into tests conducted in the Wood Technology Institute, where formaldehyde release tests by the standardized European methods have been conducted for many years, so as to determine the possibility of using the method for a comprehensive assessment of wood-based materials hygienicity. 
Tests were carried out on samples of interior and exterior plywood, made of hardwood and softwood, and of thicknesses ranging from 4 mm to 25 mm.
Formaldehyde release test was conducted by the chamber method acc. to PN-EN 717-1:2006, by the gas analysis method acc. to PN-EN 717-2:1999 and by the desiccator's method acc. to JIS A 1460:2001. Comparative tests showed that the Japanese desicca-tor's method is statistically significantly correlated with European methods and as such may be successfully introduced into classification of wood-based materials, and especially of plywood, which is commonly used in the furniture industry.
Formaldehyde release determined by the desiccator's method makes it possible to divide tested products into four classes within one hygiene class E1 which is binding according to European requirements. This may facilitate selection of an appropriate quality of materials which are used for furnishing of A and B category rooms intended for permanent residence of people and in which, pursuant to the Ordinance of the Minister of Health and Social Welfare of 12.03.1996, MP No. 19 item 231, formaldehyde concentration should not exceed 50mg/m3 (category A) or 100mg/m3 (category B).

ANNOUNCEMENTS 

Ewa Ratajczak: 
Acceleration of innovation as a strategie objective of the forestry-wood sector
(Polish language version)
 

The beginning of 2007 brought about important changes in EU policy on increasing the competitiveness of member states through creation and implementation of innovation   in every field of economy. Directing of means supporting research and development directly to enterprises is the core of the new approach which is reflected in the principles of the 7thEU Framework Programme. The aim of a Conference organized by the European Forest-based Sector Technology Platform at the end of the last year in Lahti was to acquaint representatives of the European forestry-wood sector with the new rules and to get them to undertake actions which would lead to an increase in the competitiveness of the European economy. The Conference was a large-scale undertaking - over 350 people participated in it, including representatives from Poland: from the Faculty of Forestry of the August Cieszkowski Agricultural University of Poznan, the Forestry Faculty of the Warsaw Agricultural University, and the Wood Technology Institute in Poznan. The main organizer, the European Forest-based Sector Technology Platform, concluded that important meeting by inviting foresters and representatives of the wood industry to participation in another significant event which is to take place in Hanover in May 2007. The Hanover Conference is an important part of celebrations connected with Germany taking over from Finland the presidency in the European Commission.

Grzegorz Kowaluk, Jakub Sandak: 
Large dimensioned timber problems in COST Action E40
(Polish language version)

Large dimensioned timber (LDT) is the subject-matter of the COST Action E40. Scientific Workshops of this action were held on 18th-19th September 2006 in San Michele all'Adige, Italy. The topic of these workshops was "Large Diameter Timber problems with a special focus to the situation in Italy". The organizer and host of the workshops was the CNR IVALSA in Trento. The last meeting of Action E40 took place on 29th-30th March 2007 in Grenoble, France. 

Magdalena Nowaczyk-Organista, Zofia Krzoska-Adamczak: 
Resistance to cold liquids as main criterion of furniture surface classification - Interlabo-ratory tests results
(English language version)
 

This paper presents chosen results of studies of basic utility properties of furniture coatings. Tests of furniture surfaces resistance to cold liquids, obtained during inter-laboratory tests, were performed with the aim of verification of assumed European criteria of surface classification.

SCIENTIST PROFILES

Andrzej Grzywacz: 
Jubilee of Professor Jerzy Ważny a full member of the Polish Academy of Sciences 
(Polish language version)

In 2007 Professor Jerzy Ważny, PhD, celebrates a jubilee of his 80th birthday. He is a brilliant scientist, specialist in a broad scope of wood protection which encompasses the wood industry, forestry, construction, and monument conservation. He is a Full Member of the Polish Academy of Sciences and a member of numerous academies, societies and scientific organizations, both domestic and foreign, who has a great share in the attainment of the development of science, wood industry, wood conservation, and conservation of monuments and national cultural goods.